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Vision Health - Common Eye Diseases, Types, Causes & Symptoms

  • April 13,2022
  • 2 Min Read
Vision Health - Common Eye Diseases, Types, Causes & Symptoms

Our eyes capture approximately 80% of the information that we perceive from the world and interpret more than one million pulse signals per millisecond and transmit them to the brain. 

Like other organs of our body, eyes are vulnerable to stress and injury and change visual acuity as we grow older; if not properly cared for, they can lose their full potential. Still, most of us don't think about our eyes until we experience some difference in our vision. 


What does the colour of our eyes say about our vision health?

What are the common types of eye disorders in India?

Eye diseases or disorders come in a wide range and variety. Following are some of the common eye problems faced in India:

  • Eyestrain or tiredness of the eyes
  • Refractive Errors [short-sightedness, farsightedness, distorted vision]: A variety of conditions can cause an eyeball to be too long or too short such as changes in the cornea's curvature or just getting older. Fortunately, refractive errors can be corrected. 
  • Cataract: A condition where an opacity within the clear lens of the eye develops. Cataract primarily develops over time due to unusual protein breakdown and accumulation in the eyes. Previous eye surgery or other medical conditions such as diabetes are also contributing factors to cataracts.
  • Glaucoma: A condition where increased intraocular pressure may result in damage to the optic nerve.
  • Dry Eye Syndrome: A condition where the tear glands are not able to make enough tears. Usually, the combination of tear film composed of fatty oils, aqueous fluid, and mucus keeps the surface of our eyes clean, lubricated, and smooth. Issues with these layers can cause dry eyes. 
  • Colour blindness: A often inherited condition wherein the capacity to differentiate between certain colours is impeded.
  • Night Blindness [Nyctalopia]: Difficulty to see in low light. The eyes are not able to optimally adjust the vision in less light. Night blindness has several causes, usually occurring due to a pre-existing condition, but not always.
  • Conjunctivitis [allergic/ bacterial/ viral]: It is inflammation in the conjunctiva (Please refer to the diagram above).


Some other eye diseases or disorders found in people are:

  • Age-Related Macular Degeneration: An eye disease that can blur the sharp, central vision. It is the most common cause of severe, permanent vision loss in people over 60.
  • Diabetic Retinopathy: A complication of diabetes that affects the eyes, causing vision loss and blindness. Which damages the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye's blood vessels (retina).
  • Hypertensive Retinopathy: A condition which develops due to hypertension over time, limiting the retina's function and putting pressure on the optic nerve, causing vision problems.
  • Strabismus: A nerve injury or dysfunction of the muscles controlling the eye causes the eyes to align improperly when looking at an object. It is most common in people who have poor eye muscle control.


What causes eye disorders in the Indian population? 

Some of the significant causes of visual impairment and preventable blindness are cataracts, glaucoma, and refractive errors.  

According to Survey India National Blindness and Visual Impairment (2015-19) report cataract is the leading cause of blindness accounting for 66.2% cases of blindness, and 80.7% of cases of severe visual impairment followed by refractive error and glaucoma.


Are there any symptoms that help identify an eye disorder? 

If we observe any signs listed below, don't neglect them. Schedule our appointment post-consultation for the vision test immediately:

  • Severe, sudden eye pain
  • Recurrent pain in or around the eye 
  • Hazy, blurred, or double vision
  • Seeing flashes of light or sudden bright floating spots
  • Seeing rainbows or halos around lights
  • Seeing floating "spider webs"
  • Feeling heavy eyelids
  • Painful, unusual, sensitivity to light or glare
  • Swollen, red eyes
  • Colour changes in the iris
  • Development of white areas in the pupil of the eye
  • Heavy discharge in the eyes 
  • Itching or burning sensation
  • Any sudden change in vision


What are the risk factors?

  • Here are some key risk factors that can impact healthy vision:
  • Lack of adequate food nutrition intake
  • Smoking
  • Excessive alcohol consumption 
  • High blood pressure and cholesterol
  • Having diabetes for an extended period
  • High, persistent blood glucose levels
  • Are overweight or obese
  • Have a family history of eye diseases
  • Prolonged use of steroids
  • Ageing


What do we recommend?

We recommend that everyone have their eyes examined at least once every six months.

At Suburban Diagnostics, we offer two types of tests for eye examination:

  • Vision testing for distant and near vision
  • Colour vision testing to assess colour blindness

Get your eyes examined today.


How to keep eyesight healthy?

  • Eat a healthy, balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables, particularly deep yellow and green leafy vegetables.
  • Maintain a healthy weight, exercise regularly.  
  • Avoid long and continuous staring at the computer screen. Take frequent screen breaks.
  • Wear sunglasses to protect your eyes from the sun’s UV rays.
  • Get regular eye screenings.


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