Serology & Immunology - Suburban Diagnostics

SubUrban Icon Serology And Immunology

The department of serology and immunology caters to the testing of huge volumes of samples for infectious disorders and supports this workload through its complete spectrum of serological markers. Allergy testing is also a key offering of this department and has received widespread acceptance among doctors and patients alike. Tests for critical conditions like autoimmune disorders are also offered under this department with a special focus on tests to investigate bad obstetric history.

1. Infectious Disorders

Serological tests for common monsoon fevers:
  • Dengue: NS1, IgM and IgG
  • Chikungunya: IgM
  • Leptospirosis: IgM and IgG
  • Malaria: MP Antigen
  • Typhoid: IgM
Serological markers for Hepatitis B
  • HBs Ag – Serological marker for HBV infection
  • HBs Ab – used to document recovery and / or immunity to HBV infection
  • Anti HBc IgM – marker of acute infection
  • HBe Ag – indicates active replication of virus and therefore infectivity status
  • Anti HBe – indicates seroconversion status
Serological markers for Hepatitis C
  • HCV IgM – acute marker for confirming the presence of Hepatitis C Virus
Serological Markers for Helicobacter Pylori
  • Helocobacter pylori (H.pylori) is the causative organism associated with
    • Peptic Ulcer
    • Chronic Gastritis
    • Duodenitis
    • Gastric Cancer
  • Serological Diagnosis – IgA levels rise with infection and remain at a constant high until the infection is eliminated
  • Therapeutic Monitoring – As IgA levels decrease more rapidly than IgG, this parameter can be useful in follow-up of patients
Herpes Simplex Virus
HSV 1 and 2 IgM

For screening and primary diagnosis of HSV infection

TORCH testing (Toxoplasmosis, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus and Herpes)

TORCH 8: Toxoplasma IgG, Toxoplasma IgM, Rubella IgG, Rubella IgM, CMV IgG, CMV IgM, Herpes simplex Virus 1 IgG and IgM, Herpes simplex Virus2 igG and IgM

TORCH is for a group of four infectious diseases that may cause illness in pregnant women and birth defects in newborns. The test is a screen for the presence of any of the antibodies to these infections. Confirmation of an active infection may require more specific tests.

2. Auto-Immune Disorders

Anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) useful for the diagnosis of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Scleroderma
  • ANA detection performed by IFA – The Gold Standard technique to detect presence of antibodies
  • Combination of Hep – 2010 cells and primate liver cells provides
  • Pattern differentiation to guide the type of autoimmune disorder
  • Homogenous – SLE
  • Speckled – Sjogrens Syndrome
  • Nucleolar – Scleroderma
  • Confirmed by ANA Blot test or monospecific ELISA
ANA Blot
  • Results of the ANA test are further confirmed by ANA blot or by mono-specific ELISA
Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)
  • Used in the diagnosis and management of collagen vascular disease
  • ANCA by IFA is highly sensitive
  • C – ANCA (PR 3) is increased in:
    • Systemic Necrotizing Vasculities
    • Wegener’s Granulomatosis
    • Churg Strauss Syndrome
  • P – ANCA (MPO) is increased in:
    • Connective Tissue Disease
    • Inflammatory Bowel Diease
    • Autoimmune Liver Disease
  • Anti double stranded DNA (Anti dsDNA), specific test for diagnosing suspected SLE
    • Essential in the diagnosis of SLE. It is also detected in patients with other autoimmune diseases
    • Anti dsDNA is significant for the prognosis of SLE and monitoring the disease activity
    • Sensitivity in patients with SLE is 70%
    • Specificity in patients with autoimmune diseases is 99%
    Antibody tests for bad obstetric history
    Anti-phospholipid antibodies (APA)
    • To help investigate inappropriate clot formation
    • To help determine the cause of recurrent miscarriage
    • To evaluate a prolonged PTT (partial thromboplastin time)
    • As part of evaluation for antiphospholipid antibody syndrome
    • As part of evaluation of patients with connective tissue disease
    Anti cardiolipin antibodies (ACA)
    • To help investigate unexplained blood clot formation
    • To help determine the cause of recurrent miscarriage
    • As part of an evaluation for antiphospholipid syndrome
    • Test performed in cases of one or more unexplained venous or arterial thrombotic episodes and recurrent miscarriages, especially in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters

3. Gastrointestinal disorders

Calprotectin for Inflammatory Bowel Disease
  • Screening of patients with intestinal symptoms and differentiation of IBS and IBD
  • Primary non-invasive laboratory diagnosis of IBD
  • Helps in the selection of the right candidates for endoscopy
  • Prognosis and monitoring of confirmed IBD cases
  • Predicting the risk of relapse among patients in remission
Anti-tissue Transglutaminase Antibody (Anti tTG) for Celiac Disease

To help diagnose celiac disease and to evaluate the effectiveness of a gluten-free diet

Test performed when a patient has symptoms suggesting celiac disease, such as chronic diarrhoea, abdominal pain, anemia, weight loss

When an infant is chronically irritable or fails to grow at a normal rate

When a close family member has celiac disease; when you are being treated for celiac disease

4. Allergy testing

Phadiatop
  • The Gold Standard test to detect allergy with a single prick
  • A simple blood test to differentiate IgE mediated atopic allergy from other allergy-like reactions
  • Measures IgE antibodies to a well-balanced mixture of common environmental allergens relevant to the age and region of the patients
  • Over 90% efficiency of correctly classifying atopic versus non-atopic patients
  • Two age dependent versions:
    • Phadiatop (>5 years of age)
    • Phadiatop Infant (0 – 4 years of age)
Algorithm for allergy blood testing with ImmunoCAP
  • Allergy Screening Test: ImmunoCAP Phadiatop/Phadiatop Infant

For any further information, please email Dr. Anupa Dixit at dranupa@suburbandiagnostics.com or
Dr. Jyot Thakker at drjyot@suburbandiagnostics.com


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