Diabetes Management

A person with diabetes has a condition in which the quantity of glucose in the blood is too elevated (Hyperglycemia). This is because the body does not produce enough insulin, produces no insulin, or cells that do not respond properly to the insulin which the pancreas produces. This results in too much glucose building up in the blood. This excess blood glucose eventually passes out of the body in urine. So, even though the blood has plenty of glucose, the cells are not getting it for their essential energy and growth requirements.

There are many risk factors for developing diabetes. The more risk factors you have, the more likely you will develop diabetes.

Genetic factors that can lead to diabetes include a family history of diabetes, and certain ethnic backgrounds, which are not under our control.

Risk factors for diabetes which you can control include being overweight, a sedentary lifestyle, high blood pressure, high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, and having a high fasting blood sugar.

It is due to the above factors that India is poised to become the Diabetes Capital of the world.

“Eventually most diabetics will suffer long-term complications of diabetes unless adequately monitored”.

Complications from Unmonitored Diabetes are:-

Large Blood Vessels

  • HEART – increased risk for coronary artery disease
  • BRAIN – increased risk for stroke
  • NERVES – peripheral neuropathy, tingling & loss of sensation
  • SKIN – prone to infections

Small Blood Vessels

  • KIDNEY – microvascular damage resulting in renal failure
  • EYES – microvascular damage resulting in retinal problems

Diabetes affects you from Head to Toe

There are simple and effective Diabetes Management Programmes available for monitoring diabetes through certain blood and urine parameters.

Routine Investigations are:-

  • CBC, ESR, Blood Sugar – Fasting and Post Prandial (PP)
  • Lipid Profile – For Large Vessel Disease
  • Microalbuminuria – For Small Vessel Disease
  • Creatinine – For Kidney Functions
  • Glycosylated Hb – For the long-term control of blood sugar
  • Urine Routine

Annual Diabetic Plan

  • CBC, ESR – 6 Monthly Blood Sugar (F/PP) – 2 Monthly
  • Lipid Profile – 6 Monthly
  • Microalbuminuria – Yearly
  • Creatinine – 6 Monthly
  • Glycosylated Hb – 6 Monthly
  • Urine Routine – 6 Monthly

What is Glycosylated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) ?

Glycosylated hemoglobin is a reaction product of hemoglobin and glucose that is formed and accumulated in the living red blood cells during its entire 120 days life span.

Importance of HbA1c:- Glycosylated hemoglobin levels reflect a time averaged blood glucose concentrations over the previous 3-4 months. Therefore, HbA1c has acquired an importance role in monitoring the long-term blood glucose control of diabetics. The HbA1c values are not subject to daily variations and therefore useful in patients with greatly fluctuating glucose values.

Sample Prerequisite:  Fasting not required, Random Sample

What is Microalbuminuria (MAU)

Although not detected by routine urine test, diabetic patients may be passing albumin in urine for months or years, before it reaches a level that can be detected by conventional methods.

Importance of Microalbuminuria:- Detecting MAU at an early stage means saving the kidneys from irreversible damage, which can be caused due to uncontrolled diabetes. MAU is the first warning signal to an impending “Nephropathy” (kidney damage) if attention is not paid to keep diabetes under control.

Sample Prerequisite: – First morning urine sample before exercise & walk.