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How Breast Cancer, Cervical and Ovarian Cancers are Affecting Modern Age Indian Womens.

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Breast Cancer is the most common cancer among women in India and accounts for 27% of all cancers in women. In urban areas, 1 in 22 women develop breast cancer during her lifetime. 1.45 lakhs of fresh cases diagnosed every year in india

What is Breast Cancer?

Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast begin to grow out of control. These cells usually form a tumor that can often be seen on an X-ray or felt as a lump. The tumor is malignant (cancerous) if the cells can grow into (invade) surrounding tissues or spread (metastasize) to distant areas of the body. Breast cancer occurs almost entirely in women, but men can get it, too.

It’s also important to understand that most breast lumps are not cancerous, they are benign. Benign breast tumors are abnormal growths, but they do not spread outside of the breast and they are not life threatening.

Any breast lump or change needs to be checked by a health care provider to determine whether it is benign or cancer, and whether it might impact your future cancer risk.

Symptoms of Breast Cancer :

Breast Cancer Symptom

Other Symptoms include :

• Breast Pain
• Nipple discharge other than breast milk
• Lump in underarm area

Risk Factors for Breast Cancer :

Cannot be controlled

Can be controlled





Family History






Genetic Factors

Stress & Anxiety

Medication like DES


Late / No Pregnancy

Breast Feeding

Hormone Replacement Theropy

Diagnosis of Breast Cancer :

Mammography • CA 15.3 • BRCA 1 & 2 :-
Radiologists today rely on mammography that helps diagnose breast cancer at an early stage before they can be felt by the patient.

Mammography Machine


Breast Self Exam (BSE)

Breast Self-Exam Part 1: TOUCH

• Lie down and place a pillow under your right shoulder. Put your right hand under your head and check the entire breast area with the finger pad of your left hand.

• Use small circles and follow an upand-down pattern. Use light, medium and firm pressure over each area of the breast. Feel the breast with the surface of the second, third and fourth finger, moving systematically and using, circular motions from the outer margin to the nipple.

• When you reach the nipple, remove the pillow and remove your hand from forehead and place the arm at right angle. Check the nipple area using the same circular pressure in an up-and-down pattern as before.

Repeat these steps for left breast using your right hand.


Breast Self-Exam Part 2: LOOK

Stand before mirror and see for changes in shape, skin, nipples and vein pattern. Inspect your breast in the following four steps:

  • With your arms at your sides
  • With your arms overhead
  • With your hands on hips
  • Bend forward



In India,

  • Cervical cancer is the 2nd most common female cancer in women aged 15 to 65 years.
  • About 122,844 new cervical cancer cases are diagnosed annually.
  • 5% of women in general population harbor HPV-16/18 infection.

What is cervical cancer?

Cervical cancer is a type of cancer that occurs in the cells of the cervix — the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina.

Various strains of the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection, play a role in causing most cervical cancer. When exposed to HPV, a woman’s immune system typically prevents the virus from doing harm. In a small group of women, however, the virus survives for years, contributing to the process that causes some cells on the surface of the cervix to become cancer cells.
Cervical Cancer


Risk Factors for Cervical Cancer :

1. Multiple Sexual Partners
2. Having more number of Children
3. Early Marriage
4. Smoking
5. Family History/ Hereditary
6. Oral Contraceptive Pills
7. Unprotected Sex
8. Early Child Birth

Symptoms of Cervical Cancer :

Early-stage cervical cancer generally produces no signs or symptoms.

Signs and symptoms of more-advanced cervical cancer include:

  • Vaginal bleeding after intercourse, between periods or after menopause
  • Watery, bloody vaginal discharge that may be heavy and have a foul odor
  • Pelvic pain or pain during intercourse

Diagnosis of Cervical Cancer :


Why PAP SMEAR+HPV together is the preferred screening method for women ages 30 to 65*

  • 18.6% cancers missed by HPV-Alone
  • 12.2% cancers missed by PAP (LBC)-Alone
  • 5.5% cancers missed by PAP (LBC)+HPV together

*survey done by largest volume based test laboratory in US.

Leading Health Organisations ACOG, ACS, ASCP & ASCCP* recommend that PAP (LBC)+ HPV together (co-testing) is the preferred approach for cervical cancer screening

*ACOG (American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists), ACS (American Cancer Society), ASCP (American Society of Clinical Pathology), ASCCP (American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology)

Who should be tested :

  • PAP (LBC) ALONE: AGES 21-29



Ovary is the third leading site of cancer among women, trailing behind cervix and breast cancer. The age-adjusted incidence rates of ovarian cancer vary between 5 to 8 per 100,000 population in different parts of the country.

Ovarian cancer is a cancer affecting the ovaries; organs responsible for secretion of female hormones and ovulation in women, and situated in the pelvis.
Ovarian Cancer


It is one of the most fatal gynaecological cancers because it remains silent for a long time as the symptoms of ovarian cancer are insidious and non-specific.

Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer :

  • Bloating
  • Pelvic or abdominal pain
  • Trouble eating or feeling full quicky
  • Feeling the need to urinate urgently or often

Diagnosis of Ovarian Cancer :

CA-125 • HE4 • Ultrasound


• Mammography, CA-15.3 & BRCA 1 & 2 for Breast Cancer

• PAP (LBC)+ HPV for Cervical Cancer

• CA-125, HE4 & Ultrasound for Ovarian Cancer

Book Appointment to get yourself tested at Suburban Diagnostics.

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